Constantin Cristian DEOPALE, Liviu Daniel GHICULESCU, Bogdan Ionut CRISTEA


The actual focus on sustainable development based on a circular economy, moved in a new economic era, Industrial Revolution 4.0. Although in the last decade, some of the EU27 countries have taken important steps towards this new industrial transformation, there are still many aspects to be clarified with regards to how Romania is prepared for these changes. Thus, this paper has analyzed the situation of our country from the point of view of economic and human resources, in perspectives for Industry 4.0 and how this can support the sustainable development of local smart cement factories. For this purpose, 41 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), grouped by five areas of interest, have been used to analyze the information available in the EUROSTAT databases. Results showed that Romania needs to further adapt its transition strategy to Industry 4.0 to remain competitive on the European industrial market, including the cement industry, given the need for more efficient use of existing resources, solving social-economic problems, and protecting the environment.

Full Text:



Henning Kagermann, Wolfgang Wahlster, Johannes Helbig, Recommendations for implementing the strategic initiative INDUSTRIE 4.0, Published by National Academy of Science and Engineering, Germany, (2013).

Hayriye Atik, Fatma Ünlü, The Measurement of Industry 4.0 Performance through Industry 4.0 Index: An Empirical Investigation for Turkey and European, The 3rd World Conference on Technology, Innovation and Entrepreneurship (WOCTINE), Procedia Computer Science, pp. 852–860, (2019).

Malte Brettel, Niklas Friederichsen, Michael Keller et al., How Virtualization, Decentralization and Network Building Change the Manufacturing Landscape - An Industry 4.0 Perspective, The International Journal of Information and Communication Engineering, Vol:8, No:1, (2014).

David Romero, Johan Stahre, Thorsten Wuest et al., Towards an operator 4.0 typology a human-centric perspective on the fourth industrial revolution technologies, The CIE46 Proceedings, Tianjin / China, (2016).

Günther Schuh, Reiner Anderl, Roman Dumitrescu, Using the Industrie 4.0 Maturity Index in Industry - Current challenges, case studies and trends, Published by National Academy of Science and Engineering, Germany, (2020).

Bzhwen A. Kadir, Ole Broberg, Carolina Souza da Conceição, Current research and future perspectives on human factors and ergonomics in Industry 4.0, Published by Journal of Computers & Industrial Engineering, (2019).

Francesco Longo, Antonio Padovano, Lucia Gazzaneo et al., Human factors, ergonomics and Industry 4.0 in the Oil&Gas industry: a bibliometric analysis, The International Conference on Industry 4.0 and Smart Manufacturing, Procedia Computer Science, pp. 1049 – 1058, (2021).

Eric Ras, Fridolin Wild, Christoph Stahl et al., Industry 4.0: Bridging the Skills Gap of Workers in Industry 4.0 by Human Performance Augmentation Tools - Challenges and Roadmap, The Conference PETRA '17, Greece, (2017).

Jiri Tupa, Jan Simota, Frantisek Steiner, Aspects of risk management implementation for Industry 4.0, The 27th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing, FAIM2017, Modena, Italy, Procedia Manufacturing, pp. 1223 – 1230, (2017).

I. El Mouayni, G. Demesure, H. Bril-El Haouzi et al., Jobs scheduling within Industry 4.0 with consideration of worker’s fatigue and reliability using Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure, Published by IFAC PapersOnline, pp. 85 – 90, (2019).

Chiara Franciosi, Alexandre Voisin, Salvatore Miranda et al., Integration of I4.0 technologies with maintenance processes: what are the effects on sustainable manufacturing?, Published by IFAC PapersOnline, pp. 1 – 6, (2020).

Elita Amrina, Annike Lutfia Vilsi, Key Performance Indicators for Sustainable Manufacturing Evaluation in Cement Industry, The 12th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing, (2015).

Ana Regina Macedo, João Fonseca, Ricardo Alves et al., The impact of Industry 4.0 to the environment in the cement industry supply chain, The 31st International conference on efficiency, cost, optimization, simulation and environmental impact of energy systems Guimaraes, Portugal, (2018).

Iqra Sadaf Khan, Muhammad Ovais Ahmad, Jukka Majava, Industry 4.0 and sustainable development: A systematic mapping of triple bottom line, Circular Economy and Sustainable Business Models perspectives, Published by Journal of Cleaner Production, (2021).

Chiara Franciosi, Benoit Iung, Salvatore Miranda et al., Maintenance for Sustainability in the Industry 4.0 context: a Scoping Literature Review, Published by IFAC PapersOnline, pp. 903 – 908, (2018).

Mahak Sharma, Sachin Kamble, Venkatesh Mani et al., Industry 4.0 adoption for sustainability in multi-tier manufacturing supply chain in emerging economies, Published by Journal of Cleaner Production, (2021).

T.E.T. Dantas, E.D. de-Souza, I.R. Destro et al., How the combination of Circular Economy and Industry 4.0 can contribute towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, Published by Journal of Sustainable Production and Consumption, pp. 213 – 227, (2021).

John Lee, Ian Cameron, Maureen Hassall, Improving process safety: What roles for Digitalization and Industry 4.0?, Published by Journal of Process Safety and Environmental Protection, pp. 325 – 339, (2019).

Vasja Roblek, Maja Meško, and Alojz Krapež, A Complex View of Industry 4.0, Published by SAGE Open, (2016).

Thomas Walther, Digital Transformation of the Global Cement Industry, Published in the 2018 IEEE-IAS/PCA Cement Industry Conference (IAS/PCA), (2018).

The European Commission, EUROSTAT database, (last accessed on 27.08.2021).

Sumit Gupta, Suresh Subudhi, Ileana Nicorici, Why cement producers need to embrace industry 4.0, Published by Boston Consulting Group at, last accessed 20.09.2021, (2018).

*** The European Commission, Competitiveness of the European Cement and Lime Sectors, Published at 07d18924-07ce-11e8-b8f5-01aa75ed71a1.0001.01/ DOC_1 last accessed 20.09.2021, (2017).

Francesco Longo, Letizia Nicoletti, Antonio Padovano, Smart operators in industry 4.0: A human-centered approach to enhance operators’ capabilities and competencies within the new smart factory context, Published by Journal of Computers & Industrial Engineering, pp. 144 – 159, (2017).

Fazel Ansari, Philipp Hold, Marjan Khobreh, A knowledge-based approach for representing jobholder profile toward optimal human–machine collaboration in cyber physical production systems, Published by Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, pp. 87 – 106, (2021).

Anastasia Angelopoulou, Konstantinos Mykoniatis, Nithisha Reddy Boyapati, Industry 4.0: The use of simulation for human reliability assessment, The International Conference on Industry 4.0 and Smart

Sotirios Panagoua, Fabio Fruggiero, Alfredo Lambiase, The Sustainable Role of Human Factor in I4.0 scenarios, The International Conference on Industry 4.0 and Smart Manufacturing, Procedia Computer Science, pp. 1013 – 1023, (2021).

Liane Mahlmann Kipper, Sandra Iepsen, Ana Julia Dal Forno et al., Scientific mapping to identify competencies required by industry 4.0, Published by Technology in Society, (2021).

Mehrnoosh Askarpour, Dino Mandrioli, Matteo Rossi et al, Formal model of human erroneous behavior for safety analysis in collaborative robotics, Published by Journal of Robotics and Computer Integrated Manufacturing, pp 465 – 476, (2019).

Jianqiao Liu, Yanhua Zou, Wei Wang et al, Analysis of dependencies among performance shaping factors in human reliability analysis based on a system dynamics approach, Published by Journal of Reliability Engineering and System Safety, (2021).

Di Pasquale Valentina, De Simone Valentina, Miranda Salvatore et al., Smart operators: How Industry 4.0 is affecting the worker’s performance in manufacturing contexts, The International Conference on Industry 4.0 and Smart Manufacturing, Procedia Computer Science, pp. 958 – 967, (2021).

Matthew Krugh, Ethan McGee, Stephen McGee et al., Measurement of operator-machine interaction on a chaku-chaku assembly line, The 45th SME North American Manufacturing Research Conference, USA, Procedia Manufacturing, pp. 123 – 135, (2017).


  • There are currently no refbacks.