Iulian ȘTEFAN, Gabriel Constantin BENGA, Ionel Dănuț SAVU, Sorin Vasile SAVU, Adrian Bebe OLEI


Titanium diboride (TiB2) is a hard compound with good strength at elevated temperatures. The experimental activities, presented in this paper, were aimed to develop some TiB2 composite materials as close as possible to the nanometric range. These small particles assure high mechanical properties after sintering process. The initial powders of TiB2, with particles of about 1 micron, were milled in wet environment in a planetary ball mill with different milling parameters. Two important parameters were 3:1[25] and 5:1 ball-to-powder mass ratios and milling time 2 and 3 hours. The working technology was by collision. Particles size distribution, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were done to characterize the samples. The results show that with increasing of milling time and ball ratio to powder decreases the particle size of TiB2 with about 60 %, reaching in the nanometric range.

Full Text:



Yaoqin, C., Qianglong, H., Weimin, W., Microstructure, Mechanical, and Thermal Properties of B4C-TiB2-SiC Composites Prepared by Reactive Hot-pressing, Journal of Wuhan University of Technology-Mater. Sci. Ed., 35(6), pp. 1031-1037, 2021.

Li, M., Jincheng, Y., Xue G., et al., Preparation and Sintering of Ultrafine TiB2 Powders, Ceramics International, 44(4), pp. 4491-4495, 2018.

Weimin, W., Zhengyi, F., Hao, W., et al., Influence of Hot Pressing Sintering Temperature and Time on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of TiB2 Ceramics, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 22, pp. 1045-1049, 2002.

Apparao, D., Optimization of Milling Process Parameters for Machining of Aluminium-TiB2 Metal Matrix Composite, The International journal of analytical and experimental modal analysis, Volume XII, Issue II, pp. 2695-2701, 2020.

Ahmadi, Z., Hamidzadeh Mahaseni, Z., Dashti Germi, M., Shahedi Asl, M., Microstructure of spark plasma sintered TiB2 and TiB2-AlN ceramics, Adv. Ceram. Prog.5, pp.36-40, 2019.

Dashti Germi, M., Hamidzadeh Mahaseni, Z., Ahmadi, Z., Shahedi Asl, M., Phase evolution during spark plasma sintering of novel Si3N4-doped TiB2-SiC composite, Mater.Char. 145, pp. 225-232, 2018.

Ebrahimi, A., Esfahani, H., Fattah-Alhosseini, A., Imantalab, O., In-vitro electrochemical study of TiB/TiB2 composite coating on titanium in Ringer’s solution, J. Alloys Comp. 765, pp. 826-834, 2018.

Shahedi Asl, M., Ahmadi, Z., Parvizi, S., Balak, Z., Farahbakhsh, I., Contribution of SiC particle size and spark plasma sintering conditions on grain growth and hardness of TiB2 composites, Ceram. Int. 43, pp. 13924-13931, 2017.

Fattahi, M., Pazhouhanfar, Y., Delbari, S.A., Shaddel, S., Sabahi Namini, A., Shahedi Asl, M., Influence of TiB2 content on the properties of TiC-SiC composites, Ceram. Int. 46, pp.7403-7412, 2020.

Farhadi, K., Sabahi Namini, A., Shahedi Asl, M., Mohammadzadeh, A., Ghassemi Kakroudi, M., Characterization of hot pressed SiC whisker reinforced TiB2 based composites, Int. J. Refract. Metals Hard Mater. 61, pp. 84-90, 2016.

Shayesteh, F., Delbari, S.A., Ahmadi, Z., Shokouhimehr, M., Shahedi Asl, M., Influence of TiN dopant on microstructure of TiB2 ceramic sintered by spark plasma, Ceram. Int., 2018.

Vajdi, M., Sadegh Moghanlou, F., Ahmadi, Z., Motallebzadeh, A., Shahedi Asl, M., Thermal diffusivity and microstructure of spark plasma sintered TiB2-SiC-Ti composite, Ceram. Int. 45, pp. 8333-8344, 2019.

Rabiezadeh, A., Ataie, A., Hadian, A.M., Sintering of Al2O3-TiB2 nano-composite derived from milling assisted sol-gel method, Int. J. Refract. Metals Hard Mater. 33, pp.58-64, 2012.

Rabiezadeh, A., Hadian, A.M., Ataie, A., Synthesis and sintering of TiB2 nanoparticles, Ceram. Int. 40, pp 15775-15782, 2014.

Zhao, G., Huang, C., Liu, H., Zou, B., Zhu, H., Wang, J., Microstructure and mechanical properties of hot pressed TiB2-SiC composite ceramic tool materials at room and elevated temperatures, Mater. Sci. Eng. 606, pp. 108-116, 2014.

Orooji, Y., Alizadeh, A., Ghasali, E., Derakhshandeh, M.R., Alizadeh, M., Shahedi Asl, M., Ebadzadeh, T., Co-reinforcing of mullite-TiN-CNT composites with ZrB2 and TiB2 compounds, Ceram. Int. 2019.

Savu I.D., Tarnita D., Savu S.V., Benga G.C., Cursaru L.M., Dragut D.V., Piticescu R.M., Tarnita D.N., Composite Polymer for Hybrid Activity Protective Panel in Microwave Generation of Composite Polytetrafluoroethylene ‐ Rapana Thomasiana, Polymers, pp. 2432, 2021.

Savu S.V., Tarnita D., Benga G.C., Dumitru I., Stefan I., Craciunoiu N., Olei A.B., Savu I.D., Microwave Technology Using Low Energy Concentrated Beam for Processing of Solid Waste Materials from Rapana thomasiana Seashells, Energies, pp. 6780, 2021.

Savu S.V., Marin R.C., David A., Olei A.B., Dumitru I., Tarnita D., Maternova A., Savu I.D., Reducing the NOx emissions through microwave heating of aftertreatment systems for sustainable transport in inland waterway sector, Sustainability, pp. 4156, 2022.

Golla, B. R., Mukhopadhyay, A., Basu, B., Thimmappa, S. K., Review on ultra-high temperature boride ceramics, Progress in Materials Science 111, 100651, 2020.

Zamora, V., Ortiz, A.L., Guiberteau, F., Nygren, M., Shaw, L.L., On the crystallite size refinement of ZrB2 by high-energy ball-milling in the presence of SiC, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 31(13), 2407–14, 2011.

Enayati, M. H., Mohamed, F. A., Application of mechanical alloying/milling for synthesis of nanocrystalline and amorphous materials, International Materials Reviews, 59, pp. 394 – 4161, 2014.

Rojac, T. et al., The application of a milling map in the mechanochemical synthesis of ceramic oxides, Journal of the European Ceramic Society 26, pp. 3711–3716, 2006.

Reid, C. B., Forrester, J. S., Goodshaw, H. J., Kisi, E. H., Suaning, G. J., A study in the mechanical milling of alumina powder, Ceramics International 34, pp. 1551–1556, 2008.

Locci, A.M., Orru, R., Cao, G., Munir, Z.A., Effect of ball milling on simultaneous spark plasma synthesis and densification of TiC–TiB2 composites, Mater. Sci. Eng. A.,434, 23–9, 2006.

Xuejian, L., Zhiyong, H., Xipeng, P., et al. Influence of Planetary High-Energy Ball Milling on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Silicon Nitride Ceramics, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 88(5), pp. 1323-1326, 2005.

Tarnita D., Tarnita D.N., Bizdoaca N., Tarnita C., Berceanu C., Boborelu C., Modular adaptive bone plate for humerus bone osteosynthesis, Romanian Journal of Morphology and embryology, 2009, pp. 447-452

Tarnita, D., Berceanu, C., Tarnita, C., The three-dimensional printing – a modern technology used for biomedical prototypes, Materiale plastice, 47(3), pp. 328-334, 2010.

Tarnita D., Tarnita D.N, Bolcu, D., Orthopedic modular implants based on shape memory alloys, chapter in Biomedical Engineering – From Theory to Applications, InTech, Viena, pp.431-468, 2011.

Hampsey, J.E., De Castro, C.L., McCaughey, B., et al., Preparation of Micrometer to Sub-Micrometer-Sized Nanostructured Silica Particles Using High-Energy Ball Milling, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 87(7), pp. 1280-1286, 2004.

Stefan, I., Benga, G. C., Olei, A., Elaboration and characterization of the nanometric titanium diboride powders by the mechanical milling method, Annals of "Dunarea de Jos" University of Galati, 31, pp. 55-58, 2020.


  • There are currently no refbacks.