Bogdan MOCAN, Mircea FULEA, Anca Daniela FĂRCAȘ, Mihaela MOCAN


Rehabilitation domain is one of the most dynamic field for exoskeletons robots, which are designed to assist patients in developing prescribed therapies. The exoskeletons should be able to respond to any command made by the patient or by the rehabilitation specialist. Thanks to technological advancements in mechatronics field, such robotic systems, greatly improve both the sensing and manipulation strengths of a patient. Within this paper the focus will be on identifying and performance evaluation of the existing medical exoskeletons used in cardiac rehabilitation therapy. To highlight the performance of exoskeletons in cardiac rehabilitation therapy, they were classified into several different categories based on their’ performance features. Further, a non-systematic literature review was performed using ScienceDirect bibliometric database to retrieve publications related to “exoskeleton robots” used in different medical therapies. A gap in scientific studies published in peer-reviewed literature on the commercial exoskeletons concerning cardiac rehabilitation was identified. Technology is rapidly evolving, and concerted investment into larger scale clinical trials is needed to identify the real benefits of the robotic skeletons in cardiac rehabilitation. Also, data from randomized clinical trials will be necessary to convince investors of the importance and benefits of funding robotic exoskeletons for patients with cardiac problems to support rehabilitation therapies.

Full Text:



Chen XW, Shafei MN, Aziz ZA, Sidek NN, Musa KI. Trends in stroke outcomes at hospital discharge in first-ever stroke patients: Observations from the Malaysia National Stroke Registry (2009–2017). J Neurol Sci. Elsevier B.V; 2019;

Escalona MJ, Brosseau R, Vermette M, Comtois AS, Duclos C, Aubertin-Leheudre M, et al. Cardiorespiratory demand and rate of perceived exertion during overground walking with a robotic exoskeleton in long-term manual wheelchair users with chronic spinal cord injury: A cross-sectional study. Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2018;61(4):215–23.

Alias NA, Huq MS, Ibrahim BSKK, Omar R. The Efficacy of State of the Art Overground Gait Rehabilitation Robotics: A Bird’s Eye View. Procedia Comput Sci. The Author(s); 2017;105(December 2016):365–70.

Mocan M, Mocan B. Cardiac rehabilitation for older patients with cardiovascular pathology using robotic systems - A survey. BALNEO Res J. 2019 Feb;10(1):33–6.

Lu CK, Huang YC, Lee CJ. Adaptive guidance system design for the assistive robotic walker. Neurocomputing. Elsevier; 2015;170:152–60.

Sitar-Taut A-V, Sitar-Taut D-A, Cramariuc O, Negrean V, Sampelean D, Rusu L, et al. Smart homes for older people involved in rehabilitation activities - reality or dream, acceptance or rejection? Balneo Res J. 2018;9(3):291–8.

Esquenazi A, Talaty M. Robotics for Lower Limb Rehabilitation. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2019;

Hamaya M, Matsubara T, Noda T, Teramae T, Morimoto J. Learning assistive strategies for exoskeleton robots from user-robot physical interaction. Pattern Recognit Lett. Elsevier B.V.; 2017;99:67–76.

Ferris DP, Schlink BR, Young AJ. Robotics: Exoskeletons. Encyclopedia of Biomedical Engineering. Elsevier Inc.; 2018. 645-651 p.

Mocan M, Chiorescu R, Banc ON, Mocan B, Anton F, Stoia M, et al. Cardiac rehabilitation protocols outcome in frail patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Balneo Res J. 2018;9(4):401–5.

Farcaş A.D., Năstasă LE, Anton F.P., Stoia M.A., Goidescu C.M., Hognogi M.D.L., et al. Quality of life – an important parameter of cardiac rehabilitation in heart failure patients. Balneo Res J. 2018;9(3):288–90.

Da Gama AEF, Chaves T de M, Fallavollita P, Figueiredo LS, Teichrieb V. Rehabilitation motion recognition based on the international biomechanical standards. Expert Syst Appl. Elsevier Ltd; 2019;116:396–409.

Gomez-Donoso F, Orts-Escolano S, Garcia-Garcia A, Garcia-Rodriguez J, Castro-Vargas JA, Ovidiu-Oprea S, et al. A robotic platform for customized and interactive rehabilitation of persons with disabilities. Pattern Recognit Lett. Elsevier B.V.; 2017;99:105–13.

Triantafyllidis A, Filos D, Buys R, Claes J, Cornelissen V, Kouidi E, et al. Computerized decision support for beneficial home-based exercise rehabilitation in patients with cardiovascular disease. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. Elsevier B.V.; 2018;162:1–10.

Mocan B, Bintintan V V, Brad S, Ciuce C, Mocan M, Murar M. Development of a robotic driven handheld laparoscopic instrument for non-invasive intraoperative detection of small endoluminal digestive tumors [Internet]. Mechanisms and Machine Science. 2016. Available from: http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84964901103&partnerID=MN8TOARS

Iqbal J, Khan H, Tsagarakis NG, Caldwell DG. A novel exoskeleton robotic system for hand rehabilitation - Conceptualization to prototyping. Biocybern Biomed Eng. Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine; 2014;34(2):79–89.

Gopura RARC, Bandara DSV, Kiguchi K, Mann GKI. Developments in hardware systems of active upper-limb exoskeleton robots: A review. Rob Auton Syst. Elsevier B.V.; 2016;75:203–20.

Capecci M, Ceravolo MG, Ferracuti F, Iarlori S, Kyrki V, Monteriù A, et al. A Hidden Semi-Markov Model based approach for rehabilitation exercise assessment. J Biomed Inform. Elsevier; 2018;78(December 2017):1–11.

Rajesh SM. Design of human exo-skeleton suit for rehabilitation of hemiplegic people. Procedia Eng. Elsevier B.V.; 2013;51(NUiCONE 2012):544–53.

Soltani-Zarrin, R., Zeiaee, A., Langari, R., & Tafreshi R. Challenges and Opportunities in Exoskeleton-based Rehabilitation. arXiv Prepr arXiv. 2017;l(22):2–5.

Guiochet J, Machin M, Waeselynck H. Safety-critical advanced robots: A survey. Rob Auton Syst. Elsevier B.V.; 2017;94:43–52.

Wu W, Fong J, Crocher V, Lee PVS, Oetomo D, Tan Y, et al. Modulation of shoulder muscle and joint function using a powered upper-limb exoskeleton. J Biomech. 2018;72:7–16.

Dijkers MP, Akers KG, Dieffenbach S, Galen SS. Systematic reviews of clinical benefits of exoskeleton use for gait and mobility in neurological disorders: a tertiary study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2019;

Yozbatiran N, Francisco GE. Robot-assisted Therapy for the Upper Limb after Cervical Spinal Cord Injury. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2019;30(2):367–84.

Ruiz-Olaya AF, Lopez-Delis A, da Rocha AF. Upper and Lower Extremity Exoskeletons. Handbook of Biomechatronics. Elsevier Inc.; 2018. 283-317 p.


  • There are currently no refbacks.